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Gastroenterology is a branch which deals with problems related to GI tract, i.e starting from mouth, esophagus, involving the stomach and intestines. Also it involves organs such as liver, gall bladder and pancreas. Enlisted here are the facilities available at Ludhiana Gastro & Gynae Centre.

An endoscopy is a procedure where organs inside your body are looked at using an instrument called an endoscope. Here, we visualize the mucosal surfaces of the esophagus, stomach, and proximal duodenum. It allows both diagnostic and therapeutic functions. Various conditions such as peptic ulcer disease, achlasia cardia, GERD, esophageal variceal ligation, foreign body extraction, resection of Gastric epithelial polyps and endoscopic balloon for weight loss.

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Colonoscopy and sigmoidoscopy

Colonoscopy is out patient procedure, involves the endoscopic examination of the large bowel and the distal part of the small bowel with a fiber optic camera on a flexible tube passed through the anus. It is used to evaluate gastrointestinal symptoms, such as bleeding, abdominal pain or changes in bowel habits. Colonoscopy can be done as a screening for colon cancer, explore the cause of unexplained changes in bowel habits, evaluate symptoms of pain or bleeding located in the abdominal area find a reason for weight loss, chronic constipation, or diarrhea. In case of suspicious lesion, biopsy is taken American Cancer Society recommends that people at average risk of colorectal cancer should start regular screening at age 45. Screening options include Stool-based tests and colonoscopy. Flexible sigmoidoscopy is a procedure that allows to examine the rectum and the lower (sigmoid) colon. In case of suspicious lesion a biopsy (small sample of tissue) is taken and sent for pathological evaluation.

Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangio- pancreatography

ERCP is a technique that combines endoscopy and fluoroscopy to diagnose and to treat biliary or pancreatic ductal diseases. Here, an endoscope is inserted through the mouth down into the duodenum. Accurate identification of the ampulla of Vater, the opening of the common bile duct (CBD) and pancreatic duct (PD) is done followed by catheter insertion through the ampulla into the CBD and/or PD. Although it caters to all the diseases involving CBD and PD, it is commonly done to retrieve stones from these ducts and stenting to ensure free flow of bile in case of any obstruction.

Wireless capsule endoscopy

Capsule endoscopy is a procedure that uses a tiny wireless camera to take pictures of your digestive tract. A capsule endoscopy camera sits inside a vitamin-size capsule you swallow. As the capsule travels through your digestive tract, the camera takes thousands of pictures that are transmitted to a recorder you wear on a belt around your waist. It helps us see inside the small intestine — an area that isn’t easily reached with more-traditional endoscopy procedures. It is mainly done to explore unexplained bleeding in the small intestine, diagnose inflammatory bowel diseases, such as Crohn’s disease, also celiac disease and screen for polyps in small intestine.

Intragastric balloon for weight loss
Intragastric balloon placement is a weight-loss procedure that involves placing a saline-filled silicone balloon in stomach. This makes you feel fuller faster, limit the food taken and helps to lose weight. The intragastric balloon procedure is a good option if you have concerns about your weight, and diet and exercise haven’t worked. Here, an empty balloon is introduced into the stomach by means of a gastroscopy or by just swallowing a capsule. The balloon is then inflated with air or saline to varying volumes. This reduces the stomach volume, resulting in a feeling of satiety which shall then lead to weight loss. Right now, there are 3 intragastric balloons approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Advantages include – they preserve the anatomy of the stomach, are safe and most importantly reversible. Needless to say, it requires commitment to a healthier lifestyle too.

Endoscopic Ultrasound (EUS)
Endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) provides high-resolution images of the stomach and intestine wall and adjacent structures. EUS-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) is a technique using a thin needle under the ultrasonographic guidance to obtain an aspirate of the tissue. In addition, other therapeutic procedures, such as EUS-guided drainage and EUS-guided celiac plexus blockage, can be performed under the guidance of real-time ultrasound.

Fatty liver
Fatty liver disease (steatosis) is the build-up of excess fat in the liver cells, and is a common liver complaint in Western countries. It affects about one in every 10 people. Risk factors include obesity, diabetes and alcohol abuse. It produces no symptoms or vague symptoms like abdominal discomfort, weakness and fatigue. It can damage your liver for years leading to cirrhosis. It can be prevented by controlling diabetes, eating a balanced, healthy diet, increase your physical activity and get regular check-ups as early intervention will prevent its progress.

Hepatitis and cirrhosis
Hepatitis is the term used to describe inflammation of the liver. It’s usually the result of a viral infection or liver damage caused by drinking alcohol. Some types will pass without any serious problems, while others can be long-lasting (chronic) and cause scarring of the liver (cirrhosis), loss of liver function and, in some cases, liver cancer. It often has no noticeable symptoms, rarely you may have muscle and joint pain a high temperature, loss of appetite, feeling sick and unusually tired all the time. Symptoms usually arise in case of progression to chronic hepatitis or cirrhosis manifesting as jaundice, swelling in the legs, ankles and feet, abdominal distension, confusion, and blood in stools or vomit. It is often possible to detect the hepatitis in early stages and arrest its progression to chronic hepatitis or cirrhosis, by meticulous screenin